For a copy of Utilitarianism,
For an abridged copy, click here.
To whom does this theory apply?
How, according to Mill, are the fundamental principles of ethics like the fundamental principles of the sciences?
What basic characteristic does Mill think all ethical theories ought to have?
To what does Mill attribute the fact that the same moral beliefs are shared by many people?
According to Mill, what does Kant's categorical imperative prove?
In what sense of the word "proof", does Mill think he can prove utilitarianism?
What does Mill mean by "the principle of utility" or "utilitarianism"? (Refer to at least all of Chapter 2 to answer this.) [L] To whom does this theory apply?
What does Mill mean by "happiness"? (Take account of the different values or ingredients of happiness discussed by Mill. [L])
How is individual happiness related to the standard of utility, according to Mill?
Whose happiness is to be promoted?
What is the basis of the principle of utility?
What reasons does Mill give to refute the criticism that utilitarianism is a doctrine "that reduces men to swine"?
When critics say that happiness is not "the rational purpose of man", what do they mean by this? (Who do you think Mill has in mind in discussing this criticism?) [pp. 12-17]
What is Mill's view about the worthiness of self-sacrifice? Why does he hold this view?
According to Mill, when we try to determine what we ought to do, is our happiness more important or less important than the happiness of someone else?
What role does motive have in morality? [pp. 17-19]
How does Mill reply to the criticism that it is impossible to expect people always to act from the motive of promoting the general interest?
What is Mill's main reply to the criticism that utilitarianism "chills" people?
What is Mill's main reply to the criticism that utilitarianism is a godless doctrine?
What is Mill's main reply to the criticism that utilitarianism is simply 'expediency'?
What is Mill's main reply to the criticism that utilitarianism demands too much since we do not have time, when we must act morally, to calculate the all the effects of our actions?
What is Mill's main reply to the criticism that a utilitarian is apt
to make exceptions for himself or herself?
What does the word "sanction" mean?
What are the two kinds of sanctions, according to Mill? Give an example of each. [L}
Why does Mill think the issue of sanctions arise when one examines utilitarianism?
What is the ultimate sanction of utility?
What is the objection to Mill's view that utilitarianism could be based on internal sanctions alone? What is Mill's reply? [pp. 28-29] [L]
According to Mill, in what way are our moral feelings natural?
What does it mean to say that the feeling of duty is innate or implanted?
How does Mill reply to the criticism that our "subjective feelings" or concerns for our fellow human beings are simply artificial or arbitrary? [pp. 30-32]
What does Mill say is the natural basis and ultimate sanction
of 'the greatest happiness morality'? How does Mill show this? [L]
What sort of proof of utility can one give, according to Mill?
What is Mill's proof that people desire happiness?
How does Mill reply to the criticism that happiness is not the only thing that people desire - that they desire virtue, for example? [L]
What does Mill say is the empirical test or proof of utilitarianism?
How does Mill reply to the criticism that a person of virtue carries out his or her purposes without thought of the pleasure that may result? [L]
In short, why does Mill think some people pursue virtue, apart from
its connection with happiness?