The Legacy of British Idealism

Research Page on British Idealism

(funding for the preparation of this page has been provided by a grant from
the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada)

For a more extensive list and bibliographies, see Biographical Encyclopedia of British Idealism, ed. William Sweet (Continuum/Bloomsbury, 2010)

Major figures in idealism

(chronologically ordered)

Idealism in Great Britain

Benjamin Jowett (1817-1893)

Edward Caird (1835-1908)

T.H. Green (1836-1882)

Books by and about Green

William Wallace (1843-1897)

[web site]

Bernard Bosanquet (1848-1923)

[web site]

F.H. Bradley (1846-1924)

    Biographical entry by Stewart Candlish

    Books by and about Bradley

    Carol Keene -Introductions to The Collected Works of F. H. Bradley [no longer online]

Volume 1 - 1865-1882: A Pluralist Approach to Philosophy
Volume 2 - A Focus on Metaphysics and Psychology
Volume 3 - 1903-1924: Refinement and Revision
Volumes 4 and 5 -  Selected Correspondence
    W.J. Mander: Introduction to The Collected Works of F. H. Bradley - Volume 6

David George Ritchie (1853-1903)

Biographical entry by Peter Nicholson



  • Darwin and Hegel, with other philosophical studies, London, S. Sonnenschein & Co.; New York, Macmillan & Co., 1893.
  • Darwinism and politics, London, S. Sonneschein, 1889; 2nd ed., with two additional essays on human evolution. London : S. Sonnenschein, 1891.
  • Natural rights, a criticism of some political and ethical conceptions,  London, S. Sonnenschein & co.; New York, Macmillan & co., 1895. (later "editions" are reprintings)
  • Philosophical studies, by David G. Ritchie.  Ed., with a memoir, by Robert Latta. London, New York, Macmillan and Co., Limited, 1905.
  • Plato. New York : Scribner, 1902.
  • The principles of state interference : four essays on the political philosophy of Mr. Herbert Spencer, J. S. Mill, and T. H. Green .London : S. Sonnenschein, 1891.
  • Studies in political and social ethics. London, S. Sonnenschein & Co., Limited; New York: Macmillan , 1902.

R.B. [Richard Burdon] Haldane (1856-1928)


    [Web site]

James Ward (1843-1925)

Biographical Entry

John (McTaggart Ellis) McTaggart (1866-1925)

    [Web site]

Sir Hector James Wright Hetherington G.B.E. (1888-1965)

Books and articles

  • Social purpose; a contribution to a philosophy of civic society, by H. J. W. Hetherington and J. H. Muirhead. London, Allen & Unwin; New York, Macmillan [1918]
  • [This book is the outcome of a series of lectures delivered at the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, in August 1916 to the summer school of the Civic and Moral Education League.]
  • The Social Aspects of Technical Education ([S.l.]: Wigan and District Mining and Technical College. 1933
  • Internationalism and democracy [Nottingham, Eng. : s.n., 1944] (University College (Nottingham, England) Montague Burton international relation lecture ; no. 10).
  • The Social Function of the University [Essex Hall lecture; 1953] London : Lindsey Press, [1953]
  • PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF GLASGOW, [Volumes 61-65 : 1932-41] VOLUME LXV                              
  • The British Universities (Abstract)     Sir Hector Hetherington, MA, LLD     9 October 1940     LXV     (1940)     1


  • ILLINGWORTH. Sir. Charles Frederic William, University statesman, Sir Hector Hetherington ... 1888-1965. Glasgow, London: George Outram & Co., 1971. pp. 158: plates; illus., ports. 24 cm.

Henry Sturt

    [Web site]

T.L.S. Sprigge

Biographical note and publications

Idealism in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh

Brajendra Nath Seal (1864-1938)

(web site)

Humayun Kabir (1906-1969)

Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938)

Idealism in South Africa

Arthur Ritchie Lord (1880-1941)

     [Web site]

R.F.A. [Reinhold Friedrich Alfred] Hoernlé (1880-1943)

    [Web site]

Andrew Howson Murray (1905-1997)

Hugh Reyburn (1886-1950)

Jan Christian Smuts (1870-1950)

b. May 24, 1870, Bovenplaats, near Riebeeck West, Cape Colony [now in South Africa]; d. Sept. 11, 1950, Irene, near Pretoria, S.Af.

South African statesman, soldier, and prime minister (1919-24, 1939-48)

Smuts sought to promote South Africa as a responsible member of the (British) Commonwealth.

At 16 he went to Victoria College (subsequently the University of Stellenbosch), where he studied science and arts and obtained first-class honours in both.

Smuts' best known philosophical work is his book Holism and Evolution, N & S Press, Cape Town, 1987, first published 1926.

For more information, see,5716,386199,00.html [broken link]

Kolbe, Frederick Charles (1854-  )
A Catholic view of Holism : a criticism of the theory put forward by General Smuts in his book, "Holism and evolution" / by Monsignor Kolbe; with a foreword by General Smuts.  London : Macmillan and co., limited, 1928. 

Idealism in Canada

John Watson [expired link]

Idealism in Australia

John Anderson  

Idealism in the United States

American Idealists

"Idealism in America"


Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)

Mary Whiton Calkins (web page at Webster University)

An autobiographical statement

  • The Persistent Problems of Philosophy: An Introduction to Metaphysics through the Study of Modern Systems, 5th ed., (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1925)

Obituary in Philosophical Review V.40 N.2 1930 - by Brand Blanshard

Borden P[arker] Bowne (1847-1910)


  • Metaphysics (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1898)
  • Introduction to Psychological Theory 1886.
  • Philosophy of Theism. 1887.
  • Principles of Ethics. 1893.
  • Kant and Spencer. 1903.

Elijah Jordan (1875-1953)

  • The Aesthetic Object; an introduction to the philosophy of value, Bloomington, Ind., The Principia Press, Inc., 1937.
  • Business be Damned. New York, H. Schuman [1952]
  • Essays in criticism; with an introd. and synopses by Robert D. Mack. [Chicago] University of Chicago Press [1952]
  • Forms of individuality; an inquiry into the grounds of order in human relations,  Indianapolis, Progress Pub. Co., 1927.
  • Theory of legislation. Indianapolis, Progress publishing company, 1930.
  • Theory of legislation; an essay on the dynamics of public mind. With a new pref. by the author.[Chicago] University of Chicago Press [1952]
  • Haworth, Lawrence Lindley. The Practical Philosophies of John Dewey and Elijah Jordan. Dissertation, University of Illinois. University of Waterloo
  • Rucker, Egbert Darnell. Corporate Reform and Economic Reality: A Critical Study of Elijah Jordan's Social Theory. Dissertation, University of Chicago.
  • René Wellek, Review of Elijah Jordan's Essays in Criticism. American Literature ( 1954), 26: 122-123.
  • Dennis MacDonald, "R. D. McKenzie and E. Jordan on Institution as the Fundamental Unit of Social Life." Paper presented at Conference on the Social Theories of Elijah Jordan. Saint Anselm College. Manchester, NH. June 27, 1994.

1954-1955 V.28  

Obituary - by Max H. Fisch

William Ernest Hocking (1873–1966) (moderate personal idealist)

John William Miller (1895-1978)

    [web site]

James Edwin Creighton (1861-1924)

  • Studies in Speculative Philosophy, by James Edwin Creighton. edited, with a select bibliography, by Harold R. Smart. New York, Macmillan Co., 1925.
  • An introductory logic, New York, London, The Macmillan company, 1898; 1900; 1909; 1920; 1926; 1937

St. Louis Hegelians

Josiah Royce (1855-1916)
Introductions from Thoemmes Press edition of Critical Responses to Josiah Royce, 1885-1916
Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

George H. Howison (1834-1916)

Biography from The Online Archive of California

The Antecedents of the Department of Philosophy at Washington University St Louis

Arthur Fisher Bentley (1870-1957)

Other figures

Sir Patrick Geddes (1854-1932)

Fabian Society
Gilbert, Katherine Everett (1886-1952)
- APA Proceedings 1952-1953 V.26 - by Glenn Nagley

De Laguna, Grace Andrus (1878-1978) May 1978 V.51 N.5  - by Isabel Stearns

Bibliographical information on some other philosophers influenced by British idealism

W[illiam] R[ichie] Sorley (1855-1935)

  • Moral Values and the Idea of God, 2nd ed. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1921)


Other materials of interest

Recent Publications on British Idealism

Research centres and resources on British Idealism

Conferences and symposia


This web page will be updated periodically. Questions and suggestions should be sent to
Will Sweet at

Copyright © William Sweet 1998-2015